An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions. [PubChem]
Oral, mouse: LD50 = 1500 mg/kg; Oral, rat: LD50 = 2500 mg/kg. Toxic reactions including fatalities have occurred in the premature and newborn; the signs and symptoms associated with these reactions have been referred to as the gray syndrome. Symptoms include (in order of appearance) abdominal distension with or without emesis, progressive pallid cyanosis, vasomotor collapse frequently accompanied by irregular respiration, and death within a few hours of onset of these symptoms.
Side effects include inhibition of bone formation, suppression of calcium absorption and delayed wound healing
Used in the treatment of cholera, as it destroys the vibrios and decreases diarrhea. It is effective against tetracycline-resistant vibrios. It is also used in eye drops or ointment to treat bacterial conjunctivitis.
For the relief of the inflammatory and pruritic manifestations of corticosteroid-responsive dermatoses. Also used to treat endocrine (hormonal) disorders (adrenal insufficiency, Addison’s disease). It is also used to treat many immune and allergic disorders, such as arthritis, lupus, severe psoriasis, severe asthma, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn’s disease.