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Amlodipine is a long-acting 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It acts primarily on vascular smooth muscle cells by stabilizing voltage-gated L-type calcium channels in their inactive conformation. By inhibiting the influx of calcium in smooth muscle cells, amlodipine prevents calcium-dependent myocyte contraction and vasoconstriction. A second proposed mechanism for the drug’s vasodilatory effects involves pH-dependent inhibition of calcium influx via inhibition of smooth muscle carbonic anhydrase. Some studies have shown that amlodipine also exerts inhibitory effects on voltage-gated N-type calcium channels. N-type calcium channels located in the central nervous system may be involved in nociceptive signaling and pain sensation. Amlodipine is used to treat hypertension and chronic stable angina.
A cardioselective beta-adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to propranolol, but without a negative inotropic effect.
Gross overdosage could result in excessive peripheral vasodilatation and possibly reflex tachycardia. Marked and probably prolonged systemic hypotension up to an including shock with fatal outcome have been reported.
For the management of hypertention and long-term management of patients with angina pectoris
For the treatment of hypertension and chronic stable angina.
LD50=2000-3000 mg/kg(orally in mice). Symptoms of an atenolol overdose include a slow heart beat, shortness of breath, fainting, dizziness, weakness, confusion, nausea, and vomiting.