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Ramipril is a prodrug belonging to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor class of medications. It is metabolized to ramiprilat in the liver and, to a lesser extent, kidneys. Ramiprilat is a potent, competitive inhibitor of ACE, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I (ATI) to angiotensin II (ATII). ATII regulates blood pressure and is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Ramipril may be used in the treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure, nephropathy, and to reduce the rate of death, myocardial infarction and stroke in individuals at high risk of cardiovascular events.
A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It has been used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.
“Symptoms of overdose may include excessive peripheral vasodilation (with marked hypotension and shock), bradycardia, electrolyte disturbances, and renal failure. The most likely adverse reactions are symptoms attributable to its blood-pressure lowing effect. May cause headache, dizziness, asthenia, chest pain, nausea, peripheral edema, somnolence, impotence, rash, arthritis, and dyspnea.
LD50 = 10933 mg/kg (orally in mice).”
- Increased urination
- Itching or rash
- Abdominal and stomach pain
- Dry mouth
- Joint pain, stiffness, and swelling
For the management of mild to severe hypertension. May be used to reduce cardiovascular mortality following myocardial infarction in hemodynamically stable individuals who develop clinical signs of congestive heart failure within a few days following myocardial infarction. To reduce the rate of death, myocardial infarction and stroke in individuals at high risk of cardiovascular events. May be used to slow the progression of renal disease in individuals with hypertension, diabetes mellitus and microalubinuria or overt nephropathy.
For the treatment of hypertension.
Used as adjunctive therapy in edema associated with congestive heart failure, hepatic cirrhosis, and corticosteroid and estrogen therapy. Also used in the management of hypertension either as the sole therapeutic agent or to enhance the effect of other antihypertensive drugs in the more severe forms of hypertension.